Twenty years later, in 303 B.C , when Seleukos Nikator, the conqueror, one of Alexander’s generals who had become king of Western Asia by then entered Punjab, faced a defeat from Chandragupta Maurya. This was the first time when a foreign army of importance was defeated in a full-scale battle. Chandragupta’s army was more classical and undoubtedly better organized than that of Poros , who was defeated by Alexander the Great. This victory reinforced a tradition of how an army should be organised and how a battle should be fought and influenced military warfare for the next two thousand years till Indian troops got trained by French and British forces brought in by merchants. Interestingly, much before Machiavelli who wrote a guide to statecraft called ” The Prince ” and was quite famous in Europe, India had its own master strategist “Kautilya” and his most brutal and ruthless guide of statecraft called “Ãrthãshãstrã” . According to him “Intelligence” is the most important both in times of war and peace and the use of spies for that is the must. The Commander-in-Chief will have an Inspector General for each of his four arms : Chariots,  Cavalry,  Elephants,  Infantry.

Reference: A Matter of Honor by Philips Mason

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